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Only by combining advanced machining equipment with high performance CNC cutting tools can it give full play to its due efficiency and obtain good economic benefits.With the rapid development of tool materials, a variety of new tool materials, their physical, mechanical properties and cutting performance have been greatly improved, the scope of application is also expanding.
The choice of tool materials has a great influence on tool life, machining efficiency, machining quality and machining cost.When cutting tools to withstand high pressure, high temperature, friction, impact and vibration, and so on.Therefore, the tool material should have the following basic properties :
(1) hardness and wear resistance.The hardness of the tool material must be higher than that of the workpiece material, which is generally required to be above 60HRC.The higher the hardness of the tool material, the better the wear resistance.
(2) Strength and toughness.The cutting tool material should have high strength and toughness, so as to withstand cutting force, impact and vibration, and prevent the cutting tool from brittle fracture and breaking edge
(3) Heat resistance.Tool material has good heat resistance, can withstand high cutting temperature, has good oxidation resistance.(4) Process performance and economy.The tool material should have good forging property, heat treatment property and welding property.Grinding performance, and the pursuit of high performance - price ratio.
The types, properties, characteristics and applications of tool materials
1.The types, properties and characteristics of diamond tool materials and their Application Diamond is the isomer of carbon, which is one of the hardest materials found in nature.Diamond tools have high hardness, high wear resistance and high thermal conductivity, and are widely used in the processing of nonferrous and nonmetallic materials.Especially in high speed machining of aluminum and si-Al alloy, diamond tools are the main cutting tools that are difficult to replace.Diamond tools with high efficiency, high stability and long life are indispensable tools in modern NC machining.
The kinds of diamond tools
2. natural diamond cutting tools: natural diamond as a cutting tool for hundreds of years of history, natural single crystal diamond tool after fine grinding, can grinding extremely sharp blade, blade radius of 0.002 mu m, can realize the ultra-thin cutting, can work out high precision and low surface roughness of workpiece, is accepted, the ideal and does not take the place of ultra-precision machining tools.
(2) the PCD diamond tool: natural diamond is expensive, diamond is widely used in machining or polycrystalline diamond (PCD), since the early 1970 s, the use of high temperature and high pressure synthesis technology of the preparation of polycrystalline diamond (Polycrystauinediamond, hereinafter referred to as PCD blade developed later, on many occasions, natural diamond cutting tool has been replaced by artificial polycrystalline diamond.PCD raw materials are abundant and its price is only one-tenth to one-tenth of that of natural diamond.PCD tools cannot grind extremely sharp edges, and the surface quality of the processed workpiece is not as good as that of natural diamond. Now, PCD blades with chip breaking grooves cannot be easily manufactured in the industry.Therefore, PCD can only be used for fine cutting of non-ferrous and non-metallic metals, and it is difficult to achieve ultra-precision mirror cutting.CVD diamond tool: since the late 1970s to the early 1980s, CVD diamond technology appeared in Japan.CVD diamond refers to the synthesis of diamond film by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on heterogeneous substrates (such as hard alloy, ceramics, etc.). CVD diamond has the same structure and characteristics as natural diamond.The performance of CVD diamond is very close to that of natural diamond. It has the advantages of natural single crystal diamond and polycrystalline diamond (PCD), and overcomes their shortcomings to some extent.
3.The performance characteristics of diamond tools:
(1) extremely high hardness and wear resistance: natural diamond is the hardest substance found in nature.Diamond has extremely high wear resistance. The service life of diamond tool is lO ~ 100 times of that of cemented carbide tool, even hundreds of times.
(2) has a very low friction coefficient: the friction coefficient between diamond and some non-ferrous metals than other tools are low, low friction coefficient, small deformation during processing, can reduce the cutting force.
Cutting edge is very sharp: diamond cutting edge can be very sharp, natural single crystal diamond tool can be up to 0.002 ~ 0.008 m, ultra-thin cutting and ultra-precision processing.
(3) has a very high thermal conductivity: the thermal conductivity of diamond and thermal diffusivity high, cutting heat is easy to come out, the cutting tool cutting temperature is low.
(4) it has a low thermal expansion coefficient: the thermal expansion coefficient of diamond is several times smaller than that of cemented carbide, and the change of tool size caused by cutting heat is very small, which is particularly important for precision and ultra-precision machining with high dimensional accuracy requirements.
The application of diamond tools.Diamond tools are mainly used for fine cutting and boring of nonferrous and nonmetallic materials at high speed.Suitable for processing all kinds of wear-resisting nonmetals, such as glass fiber reinforced plastic powder metallurgy blank, ceramic materials, etc.Wear resistant nonferrous metals, such as a variety of si-Al alloy;All kinds of non-ferrous metal finishing processing.The disadvantage of diamond tool is the poor thermal stability. When the cutting temperature exceeds 700℃ ~ 800℃, it will completely lose its hardness.In addition, it is not suitable for cutting ferrous metals, because diamond (carbon) at high temperatures easily interact with iron atoms, carbon atoms into graphite structure, cutting tools are very vulnerable to damage.